The second generation computers are known as the transistor based computers. The interest in computer technology increased during the late 1990s, as the second generation of the computer replaced the vacuum tubes with the transistors. The second generation computers were fully based, not on vacuum tubes but on the transistors. The transistor had been only utilized in computers in the late 90s, but the transistors at the Bell Labs were invented in 1947 by three scientists one of them was an American physicist. It was clear in the next year that the vacuum tube is probably replaced by a transistor in systems such as television, computer and radio.
Transistor computers VS Vacuum tube computers:
Compared to the vacuum tube, the transistor was far superior than the first generation of computers, making computers more dependable, smaller in size, quicker, energy-efficient, and cheaper. The transistor was utilized to upgrade the vacuum tube more effectively and massively. However, the computer was damaged by transistors which created a lot of heat.
Punched cards and printouts were also utilized for inputs and outputs in second generation computers. The second generation of computers is quite different from the computers produced in first-generation vacuum tubes due to arithmetical circuits and the set of index registers. In the second generation, the computers feature insulated input and output operations, which led to the management, using this circuit, of both fixed and floating point operations.
Advantages of the Transistor computers:
The second generation of computers have been developed and the users have various benefits for the world of computers. For example, technologies employed in second-generation computers led to smaller computers, improved mobility, more dependable, and a lower power consumption compared to first-generation computers. They were also speedier, and precision and automation could be improved and data could be calculated in microseconds.
In the second generation, the computers produced in comparison to computers of first generation were smaller and more dependable. The technologies employed in computers of the second generation enabled them to require less power than earlier systems. They provided higher speed and were widely used on the market as compared to first-generation computers. In addition, accuracy has been enhanced and portability improved.
Disadvantages of the Transistor computers:
These computers also had some inconvenience for users and the world of the computer. The Computers of the second generation were enduring but not more flexible. The second generation of computers are popular as first generation computers, but they are more expensive since creating and buying a part is not easy because it’s difficult to produce and use a transistor.
Even if they created less heat, they always needed air condition in the computer room. These computers were used solely for certain purposes and required constant upkeep. These Computers were not commercially manufactured easily and needed a manual feature. They were both not much cheaper and not very versatile. Magnets, tape drives, printers and other devices were utilized in the 2nd generation of computers. In addition, the technology was the same as the first generation utilized input punch cards.